Sunday, May 24, 2020

Lowering The Legal Drinking Age - 903 Words

Field Research Report To start I designed this survey to help myself get a better understanding about how others feel about lowering the legal drinking age in the United States and to better understand what role alcohol plays in people’s lives. The first question I asked for in my survey, was what the participant’s age was. I used this question to see if there was a difference on how different generations felt towards lowering the legal drinking age. I was expecting more people over the age of 25 to take the quiz because I didn’t know if younger adults would take the time to do it. However, to my surprise 71% of the 100 people that took the survey were between the ages of 18- 21. The second question I asked was what the participant’s gender was. This question just gave me a better idea of the kind of audience that was taking my survey. I expected more women to take the time to fill it out. I was correct, 77% of those that took the survey were female, the other 23% being male. T he third question in the survey was at what age did the participant start consuming alcohol. With this question I hoped to scope out if most people start consuming before the age of 21. I guessed that at least 50% people would have responses that were younger than 21. The findings of this question would be able to back my topic by showing that there is a large amount of underage drinking. My prediction turned out to be pretty accurate. Out of 100 people only 12 responded that they didn’t startShow MoreRelatedLowering The Legal Drinking Age857 Words   |  4 PagesAs we know, the United States has the highest drinking age in the world. By 1988 the entire U.S had adopted the Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act, which set the drinking age to twenty-one. However, in 1920 the United States banned the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcohol. This era known as the Prohibition sparked the popularity of hidden underground bars and events. The Prohibition Era is a prime example of how people did anything to intake alcohol and eventually this ledRead MoreLowering The Legal Drinking Age1387 Words   |  6 PagesThe concerns about safety involving alcohol, including alcohol-related fatalities, â€Å"binge drinking†, and long-term health effects, will not be compromised by lowering the legal drinking age to nineteen in the United States. Activists who wish to raise the legal minimum age frequently discuss the ways that driving while intoxicated endangers countless lives every day in the United States, and is an increasing problem in model Europe as well. However, drunk driving increases will secrecy, not withRead MoreLowering The Legal Drinking Age1933 Words   |  8 PagesLowering of the Legal Drinking Age Research Paper Adults under 21 are able to vote, sign contracts, serve on juries, and enlist in the military, but are told that they are not mature enough to have a beer?, said Ruth C. Engs, a professor of Applied Health Sciences at Indiana University (Engs). No matter what is done, teenagers and young adults all over America are going to drink if they want to. The question is, why can t they start legally drinking when they enter adulthood? An alternative toRead MoreLowering The Drinking Legal Age872 Words   |  4 Pageshas its limit age that allows people to drink Alcoholic beverage. In the United States of America, most people are able to drink and purchase alcohol at the legal age of twenty-one. Unlike the United States, most countries around the world allow their citizen to drink alcohol under the age of 21. Many American wants the U.S. government to minimize the drinking legal (MLDA) from 21 to 18 so they will be similar to other countries around the world that allowed people to drink at t he age of 18. DavidRead MoreLowering The Minimum Legal Drinking Age Essay1521 Words   |  7 PagesBeer For Everyone! The debate of lowering the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) has been going on for decades in the United States. Those opposed, argue that the current MLDA is not efficient and counterproductive (Engs 1). One study indicated that thousands of lives under the age of twenty-one are lost each year to alcohol (McCardell 1). Underage drinking is an issue that persists, despite evidence suggesting that the minimum legal drinking age of twenty-one has lowered alcohol usage among individualRead MoreAlcohol: Lowering the Legal Drinking Age1900 Words   |  8 PagesAlcohol: Lowering the Legal Drinking Age Karita Lockwood Professor O’Quinn COM 323 October 29, 2012 Introduction Alcohol is a drink that is made from corn, barley or a beverage containing ethyl. There is currently an ongoing debate as to if the legal age limit for alcohol consumption should be lowered. Despite the dangers, everyday in the United States more than 13,000 children and teens consume alcohol. The age range between eleven and eighteen is the most influential period when youthsRead MoreLowering Legal Drinking Age Essay1417 Words   |  6 PagesLowering the Drinking Age Half the United States population starts drinking at the age of 14.When you are 18 you have privileges like joining the army. (Mitch Adams Lowering the drinking age page 1) You can go to war and die for your country but you still can not enjoy an ice cold beer. (Mitch Adams Lowering the drinking age page 1) How is being 21 different from being 18? How does three more years of not drinking make you mature enough to drink? The longer you drink the more you start toRead MoreEssay on Lowering the Legal Drinking Age2090 Words   |  9 PagesHere in the United States, there is a law that prohibits youth 21 years of age and younger not to drink any alcohol beverages. However, in this country, anyone who turns 18 can sign up and be in the armed forces to protect the country. In the year 2001, war broke out between the Middle East and the United States and thousands of men and women were deployed to the Middle East to deal with the problem. While they were over there, the soldiers wou ld witness many things that civilians could neverRead More Lowering the Legal Minimum Drinking Age Essay1622 Words   |  7 Pagesunderage drinking has become a major problem, especially on college campuses. But, underage drinking is not purely the root of all accidents related to alcohol. The real problem lies within the unsafe underage drinking habits amongst youth. There are ways that these alcohol-related accidents can be avoided. Several organizations have been created that are targeting a change in the legal drinking age laws. One key way to lower the risk of unsafe drinking is to lower the minimum legal drinking age fromRead MoreFavors for and Against Lowering the Legal Drinking Age771 Words   |  4 PagesFactors In Favor of and Against Khimley Young Critical Thinking and Problem Solving/ Hum 200 AOS Instructor Dr. Steven Mathews October 24, 2012 Lowering the Legal Drinking Age to 18: Yea or Nay Argument in Favor of Lowering the Legal Drinking Age The age of 18 is a transitional point in life. An 18-year=old can vote, marry, enlist in the military and buy cigarettes. To some it’s absurd that an 18-year-old can vote politicians into office and fight wars for the country but cannot

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Project Management Theory Essay - 4267 Words

1. Introduction The High Speed Two is a high speed rail that is of very high profile within the UK right now. The project is to update the current rails as well as gaining better punctuality of service, less crowded trains and an increase of business travellers as well as a reduction in carbon emissions. The project is designed to update the rail network between London and the North West of England initially with the intention of expanding further north. The reason for this report is to evaluate three variation requests made to the High Speed Two project. The three requests are, first, a variation to the original route to take in more of Oxfordshire, second is to add a station in Madeley and third is a change of supplier. After completing†¦show more content†¦The reason for this is because the parties affected by the change are at the centre. Kurt Lewin designed the theory so that there was a one-to-one relationship between the experiment and the variables (Reason and Bradbury 2001). Throug h this theory it was further enhanced the importance of the opinion of the people affected by the change and in this case the people living around the rail and the people who are in need of a good commute route (Lawman 2014a). To gain the peoples’ opinion it was suggested by a Norwegian to introduce a conference to act as a mediator between the company and the public (Reason and Bradbury 2001). 2.1.2 Risk Management Theory According to Hubbard (2009), risk management is â€Å"the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risk followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events.† When putting risk management into the context of a project, the objective becomes recognizing where the problems might occur as well as having a contingency plan in place to be able to take the appropriate preventative and remedial actions. For this project, when making a variation to the original route the main risks are going to lie with the objectives, time, cost and quality as well as the external environmental factors of an organisation (Pellegrinelli 1997). TheShow MoreRelatedProject Management : A Common Problem Within The Stakeholder Theory Literature1828 Words   |  8 Pagesstakeholder input to the cost estimating process in project management is a common problem throughout the stakeholder theory literatur e that focuses on the management of large engineering projects, such as space and software projects (Lucae, Rebentisch, Oehmen, 2014); and. This problem has been linked to the multiple definitions for the term stakeholder (Susser, 2012; Doh Quigley, 2014; Davis, 2014). The literature shows that space projects in the United States exceed original cost estimatesRead MoreProject On Management Theories And Practices2028 Words   |  9 Pages6/8/2015 The company I decided to write my final project on for Management Theories and Practices is Google. According to Google, the company was founded on September 4, 1998 by Sergey Brin Larry Page. They founded the company in Menlo Park, California. The two founders were only college students at the time, pursuing PhDs in Computer Science. (Management team, 2015.). Neither of them finished their degrees. Yet from there, the company took off. If you take a look at you ll see thatRead MoreManagement Theories And Practices : Final Project3444 Words   |  14 PagesManagement Theories and Practices – Final Project A Study of HEB Grocery Heralded as â€Å"the smartest supermarket you never heard of† (Dooley, R., 2014) HEB Grocery (HEB) is currently celebrating 110 years in business. Founded in 1905, in the Texas Hill Country town of Kerrville, HEB began as little more than an ambitious dream and a $60 cash investment (Lester, S., 2015). Today, HEB operates over 340 stores throughout Texas and Mexico, serving over 155 communities, employing over 70,000 partners (ratherRead MoreBusiness Analysis Management Theories And Practices 303 Course Project2818 Words   |  12 Pages Management 303 Course Project 1 LivWell Business Analysis Management Theories and Practices 303 Course Project In this course project I was given a couple of options to choose from; either analyze a prev ious business I have worked for, choose from a list provided or use my current emp loyer. Since my current job is quite interesting, I will go ahead and do an analysis of my current employer. LivWell, the largest premiere medical and recreational marijuana distributor in the world, wa s establishedRead MoreProject Management Methodologies For The Development Essay981 Words   |  4 PagesCHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION The first chapter introduced the research problem that raised the question of whether adaption project management methodologies can be tailored down to Nigerian SMEs. This chapter presents the academic literature pertinent to the research, and places it in context of the research. The aim of this chapter is to provide the background information of the research topic and to show the gaps in the research literature, so as to identify the areas this researchRead MoreThe Managerial Styles Within The Catering Industry1478 Words   |  6 PagesHumanities Department of the Built Environment Course: principles of Management Course Co-ordinator: M Rhoden Assignment: 1 A critical comparison to the managerial styles within the catering industry with that of the companies within the built environment Author: David Tiernan Student No: 000879221-6 20th November 2015 1. Introduction This report critically compares the key management theories and management style differences between the catering and construction sectors. ItRead MoreProject Management : A Relatively Young Field Of Professional Discipline1590 Words   |  7 PagesBetter? Comparing Project Management in the Years 2000 and 2008 Introduction Project management is a relatively young field of professional discipline. The history of project management has been written by Morris, 1994. It shows significant changes and development through the time, also suggesting that some area still needs identifying. Further studies and research are taken to improve project management on five major directions: project complexity, social process, value creation, project conceptualizationRead MoreWork System Theory1630 Words   |  7 Pagesï  ¶ Research the theory †¢ Who are the progenitors of the theory? Find the seminal publications. (Try to find references in addition to those listed on the Wiki.) The term â€Å"Work System† was first put forward in two serial journal articles, â€Å"MIS Problems and Failures: A Socio-Technical Perspective† (Bostrom, R.P. and J.S. Heinen, 1977). From year 1999 to 2006, Steve Alter published his propositions that developed and completed the current Work Systems Theory, which defined the Work System FrameworkRead MoreProject Management Life Cycle1218 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Project Management Life Cycle Chi Zhang Herzing University MBA 631 Operations and Projects Management Dr. Gary Hanney Abstract To control the process of a project and manage the operation of a project, the theory of project management life cycle is widely used in nowadays business administration. Treating the whole time dimension of the project as a life cycle, project management life cycle separates the project to some steps and uses checkpoint, milestone andRead MoreRole of Leadership1291 Words   |  6 PagesDefinition of Leadership 2.2 Leadership versus Management 2.3 Qualities and Traits of a Leader 3.0 Leadership in Delivering A Project 3.1 Leadership in Team Building 3.2 Leadership in Project Process 3.3 Impetus for Changes 3.4 Cultivating Leadership 3.5 A Perception in Today’s Organisations - Architectural or Engineering Consulting Firms 4.0 Conclusion and Discussion Bibliography Essay – The Role of Leadership in Delivering A Successful Project IDBE 12 By Li Hong Yu Univ. of Cambridge 1

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Martin Luther King Assassination Essay - 3823 Words

Martin Luther King Assassination (word count for research paper includes 1,400 word outline) It was a glorious April 4th evening as Martin Luther King and hundreds of followers were gathering for a civil rights march. Many cheered on as the civil rights leader graciously out step on the second floor balcony of the Motel Lorraine. Roaring cheers rose from the crowd rose up as Martin Luther King stand there waving his arm with his heart warming smile waiting for the uprising taper off so he can continue with his speech. When suddenly a piercing blast broke the noise and the crowd’s cheerful spirit died. A cold chill went through all who were present fore in the back of their minds there was no doubt that their King had just been†¦show more content†¦(Lindop83) This got authorities very annoyed at King because they did not want change and King protest did it constitutionally legal. As a result police started arresting King for trivial reasons such as doing 30mph in a 25 zone, sitting in white places, civil rights marches, boycotting the busses etceteras. In all he went to jail over 30 times. (Lindop 82) It didn’t stop there the FBI or at least the head of the FBI, Jay Edgar Hoover, even hated King. â€Å"Nobody hated Martin Luther King more than J. Edgar Hoover† (Clarke 255) â€Å"King was well aware that the FBI was, as he put it, ‘out to break me.’† (Melanson 134) That was obvious being that the FBI used many man-hours in harassing King. King life was threatened by the FBI about 50 times and harassed enough to literally have entire books on the subject. A primary example of this is when the FBI dubbed a phony tape of King with another women and used to blackmail King into committing suicide. In January of 1968, three months before the assassination, an internal memo was distributed by Hoover calling for, â€Å"the Removal of King from the national scene.† After all the harassment King endured he still refused to retaliate in any illegal acts which continued to infuriate authorities. Conspicuously, the aliases JamesShow MoreRelatedThe Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination655 Words   |  3 PagesIt was the day after Martin Luther King, Jr.’s assassination, April 5th, 1968, when third grade teacher, Jane Elliott conducted her first â€Å"Blue Eyes/Brown Eyes† exercise in her classroom. Just two years later, her class project went viral, and she drew national attention when ABC broadcasted her story in a documentary, Eye of the Storm. After researching Elliott further, I discovered that her simple role playing exercise surely changed her life, and this publication kick charged her equality campaignRead More Racial Controversy Surrounding the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.3071 Words   |  13 Pages The Racial Controversy Surrounding the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. The impact of Martin Luther King, Jr. today is no doubt revered. He is commonly called the â€Å"Father of Civil Rights,† and is looked upon as a national icon, in an almost presidential-type light. His achievements have not only begat a national holiday for his birthday, but also helped lead to the creation of Black History Month. However, his accomplishments were not so regaled in his own time. In factRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement, By Martin Luther King s Assassination And The Poor People s March1522 Words   |  7 PagesEmmett Till tragically died and became the singular, powerful catalyst that sparked the movement by setting aflame conflict and tensions built up for centuries. On the other hand, the Civil rights Movement is generally said to end around Martin Luther King’s Assassination and The Poor People’s March in 1986. Before the Civil rights movement African Americans and other non-white ethnic groups suffered injustice, inequality and being oppressed. The difference was overt. The African Americans and whitesRead MoreThe Assassination Of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.1304 Words   |  6 Pages Each decade has it’s own defining events. The 1960s had the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the 1950s had the first people to ever reach the top of Mount Everest, and the 1940s had the infamous World War Two. But no decade in the twentieth century, other than the 1930s, has had one sole event define its entirety. This event was the Great Depression. Beginning in 1929, the Great Depression was present in every aspect of society from the richest CEO to the poorest pauper. Although theRead MoreMartin Luther Kings Impact On The Civil Rights Movement1030 Words   |  5 PagesMartin Luther King, Jr. was an American priest, activist, and important leader in the African-American Civil Rights movem ent. His main hope was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States, and he has become a human rights icon. King was a Baptist minister and activist. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, serving as its first president. King s efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King delivered hisRead MoreThe I Have A Dream Speech1335 Words   |  6 PagesThe Year of 1963 The year of 1963 was a year of alarm for American’s. Throughout the country, Americans were experiencing events of mass chaos for the first time. From assassinations of political figures, to riots and protests to end segregation were just a few of the problems that started in this year. Martin Luther King Jr. was a huge political figure in this era. He began protests and marches that lead to controversy around the United States. These marches and protests however, lead to violentRead MoreTurmoil During The Civil Rights Era843 Words   |  4 PagesMr. Germaneri May 12, 2015 Nawar 1 Assassinations in American history have had a great impact on the social system. Upheavals based on opinion within a society cause chaos and discourse. Assassinations have major consequences not just on the country in question, but on everyone. For example, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand led to the United States entering World War I. The United States didn’t want to enter the war; but this particular assassination forced America’s hand back and pulledRead MoreWas Malcolm X Justified Or Unjustified923 Words   |  4 PagesWas Malcolm X’s assassination justified or unjustified? Malcolm X was assassinated on February 21, 1965 in the audubon ballroom in Washington Heights, New York City. Malcolm X was assassinated before he was about to give a speech about his newly formed the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Malcolm X’s shooter was Thomas Hagan a former member of the Nation Of Islam. Malcolm X’s assassination was unjustified through deep and complex research such as â€Å"just before Malcolm X was assassinated he wasRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement And The American Civil Movement958 Words   |  4 PagesJackson, Esau Jenkins, Gloria Johnson-Powell, Clyde Kennard, Coretta Scott King, Martin Luther King, Jr., Bernard Lafayette, W. W. Law, James Lawson, Malcolm X, John Lewis and many more. On December 1, 1955, the modern civil rights movement began when Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, was arrested for refusing to move to the back of the bus in Montgomery, Alabama. A new minister in town, Martin Luther King, Jr., organized a bus boycott by the community, which eventually led toRead MoreThe Impact Of The March And King Speech917 Words   |  4 Pageswhite citizens demanding equal rights for their â€Å"black† friends. The impact of the March and King’ speech was so huge, that even after decades people believe these to be the high points of the entire Civil Rights Movement. It was one of the classiest protests in the history of America bringing together people of different races, financial standing and views but merging people with good character. Martin Luther was quick to understand and respect the support of the white people as if commanded the African-American

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Value Added Tax and GDP of China Samples †

Question: Discuss about the Value Added Tax and GDP of China. Answer: Introduction It happened for the first time in the year 2015 that services contributed to more than half of the gross domestic products or GDP of China. The field of services have been growing at an alarming rate and that rate is higher than all other sectors of the present economy. The government of China visualizes reformations in the value added tax or VAT to motivate growth in the consumptions and services as the country moves away from the industries that are low-value added. VAT is introduced mainly to motivate the low-end manufacturers in upgrading their capabilities and technologies. It also aims to motivate the industries to put money into the fields of development and research so that they can move higher up in the value chains. The system of VAT is existent in China since the times when the state underwent some bold reforms and introduced itself to the world economy in the year 1979. The Chinese tax system went through major renovations in the year 1994. During these times, the VAT system was remodeled to include the services related to repairs and processing and those related to the sale of goods. This helped in generating more revenue for the central government. It is expected that in 2016 the tax payments would be reduced by a total amount of RMB 500 billion, an equivalent of 77 million USD, due to these expansions of the VAT. The current phase of the reforms on VAT were introduced as an experimental project in Shanghai in the year 2012. These reforms incorporated some industries dealing with modern services and transportation. This was later expanded to eight different locations in the same year and later throughout the nation o the 1st of August, 2013. By the end of 2015, all industries and services of the country were brought under the scheme of VAT. Caishui [2016] No. 36 (Circular 36) issued jointly by the ministry of finance and the state administration of taxation on March 23, 2016 stated that the major industries that had been paying business tax or BT would be converted to the VAT regime. Circular 36 made sure that BT was completely replaced by the VAT thereby ending the dual existence of BT and VAT mechanisms in China. It is surely one of the major landmark reforms in the indirect tax history of China. The VAT regime of China has been further clarified as a part of the efforts on the part of the government to deduce 55.2 billion USD from taxes. The state Administration of Taxation or SAT of China has further clarified the four-tier system of VAT to a three tier system. The 13 percent bracket has been removed from the earlier system. Tax Scope According to Circular 36, VAT payers are defined as individuals and entities selling services, real estate and intangible assets within China. Two categories have been newly introduced. They are the category of supplies of intangible assets and the category of the supplies of real estate. All the core categories can be subdivided in order to define the services covered within the core category. The category dealing with the supplies of services can be further divided into seven sub-categories. It is the core category that includes the new services: Postal services Transportation services Construction services Telecommunication services Lifestyle services Financial services Modern services The services pertaining to construction, lifestyle and finance are the three subcategories that have been recently introduced. Items exempted from the scope of VAT Income from the interest of deposits derived by the financial institutions, the claims that hare paid by the insurers and specific acquisition and merger activities are exempted from the scope of VAT. Tax rates The standard rate for VAT is 17 percent for the general tax payers. This rate is applied to the importation and sale of goods, repair provisions, processing and replacement services. It also covers the lease of movable, tangible assets. The main examples of reduced rates, exemptions and zero rates are as follows: 3% - small-scale taxpayers are those who own businesses that are not sophisticated, do not have proper systems for auditing and accounting systems. The turnover of these businesses remain between the ranges of RMB 500,000 to RMB 5,000,000. This range is selected for the businesses that have been recently converted from the BT system to the VAT system. These taxpayers cannot claim the input credits on purchases but have to pay the output VAT. This rate may be applied to some construction services as well. 6% - modern services refer to the technical and research and development services, creative and cultural services, information technology services, consulting and certification services, logistics and ancillary services, services belonging to radio, television and films, value added telecommunication services, insurance and financial services and services related to lifestyle. The life style services include health care, accommodation, education, travel, food and beverage, entertainment sports and cultural services and the daily services of the citizens. 11% -services related to transportation, basic telecommunications, construction and real estate. It further includes the sale of vegetable oils and food grains, air conditioning, heating, some gas supplies, newspapers books and magazines. Zero-rated exported items, some exported services. Unlike other countries the refund provided for these items in China are in most cases lower than the incurred amount of VAT Exempt contraceptive devices and drugs, agricultural products, antique books and some exported services. Influence Earlier, many services were included in the BT scheme and manufacturing and industrial firms were included in the VAT scheme. This resulted in the services industries paying higher taxes due to them facing taxes based on revenue getting accumulated across the chains of supply whereas they did not benefit from the deductions that were allowed by the scheme of VAT. The latest reform allows the service industries to enjoy the tax rates that have been reduced generally. These industries are taxed on the value added at each transaction point, for example, the difference between the wholesale and retail prices of a product. In such cases, the input VAT must be deducted from the output VAT. Although the reform mainly plans to lessen the tax burdens in the corporate sector there have always been gainers and losers in all types of changes. The construction and real estate industries, for example, are closely entwined. The real estate industries benefit more from the VAT reforms than the construction ones. The developers may receive VAT input credits for purchasing land use rights and thus only pay the taxes for the value that they do add to the property. On the contrary, construction industries have lesser opportunities to claim the VAT credits. This is due to the fact that the labor costs cannot be deducted and the raw materials are considered not to add values to the property.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

The Niagara Movement free essay sample

The organization received its name for the â€Å"mighty current† effect they would have on black oppression and social injustice to all races. These eager intellectuals sought to motivate and educate people of all races and to combat the evils of white supremacy, Jim Crow, and black oppression. Being a profound orator, Du Bois along with the members of the Niagara Movement would oppose Booker T. Washington and seek to persuade the masses that not accommodation, but education was the key to black prosperity. In July of 1905, annoyed by Washington’s continued accommodating policies towards whites and his influence in the black community, W. E. B. Du Bois sent documents to other â€Å"like-minded† men which informed them of a meeting to be held to discuss the race problem in the United States. â€Å"Drafted and circulated by Du Bois in early June, the call stated two forthright purposes: â€Å"organized determination and aggressive action on the part of men who believe in Negro freedom and growth†; and opposition to â€Å"present methods of strangling honest criticism (Lewis. We will write a custom essay sample on The Niagara Movement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 16). † Over forty men were invited. Many of whom were his colleagues. Twenty-nine men met in Ontario, Canada under the understanding that something had to be done about the race problem, as well as Booker T. Washington. The meeting was held to discuss alternative solutions to ending racial discrimination, disenfranchisement of blacks, and the promotion of black education. Being in opposition to Washington, who was the (hand-picked) spokesman for the black race, the movement sought more militant ways of deflecting central attitudes towards racism. This organization would soon plant their feet in the soil of American politics, and they would not be moved without a change. The very next year on August 15, 1906 the movement would convene again, but this time on American turf. The site of the historically famous John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia would become the second meeting place of the movement. Du Bois stated that this meeting was â€Å"one of the greatest meetings American Negroes ever held. † Du Bois would eventually make a speech regarding the purposes of the second convention. The men of the Niagara Movement coming from the toil of the year’s hard work and pausing a moment from the earning of their daily bread turn toward the nation and again ask in the name of ten million the privilege of a hearing. In the past year the work of the Negro hater has flourished in the land. Step by step the defenders of the rights of American citizens have retreated. The work of stealing the black man’s ballot has progressed and the fifty and more representatives of stolen votes still sit in the nation’s capital. Discrimination in travel and public accommodation has so spread that some of our weaker brethren are actually afraid to thunder against color discrimination as such and are simply whispering for ordinary decencies (Du Bois). † As the next two years toiled on, and black oppression ascended throughout the country, members of the Niagara Movement would convene again in Oberlin, Ohio. Du Bois, who was the general secretary of the movement, was extremely enthusiastic of the movements’ accomplishments up to this period. The convention would convene from August 31 until September 2 with two to three meetings held each day. The movement spent their sessions writing and re-writing resolutions, making conventional addresses, voting on the passage of articles and electing new committee members. Mason Hawkins of Baltimore, Maryland would be elected as the incoming treasurer and Du Bois would remain the general secretary. The convention was open to the public and esteemed black intellectuals from the entire country were present to take part in this historical move of black preparedness. The Niagara Movement would publish the â€Å"Declaration of Principles† in 1905. Almost entirely authored by William Du Bois, the ocument stated: â€Å"Progress: The members of the conference, known as the Niagara Movement, assembled in annual meeting at Buffalo, July 11th, 12th and 13th, 1905, congratulate the Negro-Americans on certain undoubted evidences of progress in the last decade, particularly the increase of intelligence, the buying of property, the checking of crime, the uplift in home life, the advance in literature and art, and the demonstration of constructive and executive ability in the conduct of great religious, economic and educational institutions . Suffrage: At the same time, we believe that this class of American citizens should protest emphatically and continually against the curtailment of their political rights. We believe in manhood suffrage; we believe that no man is so good, intelligent or wealthy as to be entrusted wholly with the welfare of his neighbor. Civil Liberty: We believe also in protest against the curtailment of our civil rights. All American citizens have the right to equal treatment in places of public entertainment according to their behavior and desert. Economic Opportunity: We especially complain against the denial of equal opportunities to us in economic life; in the rural districts of the South this amounts to peonage and virtual slavery; all over the South it tends to crush labor and small business enterprises; and everywhere American prejudice, helped often by iniquitous laws, is making it more difficult for Negro-Americans to earn a decent living. Education: Common school education should be free to all American children and compulsory. High school training should be adequately provided for all, and college training should be the monopoly of no class or race in any section of our common country. We believe that, in defense of our own institutions, the United States should aid common school education, particularly in the South, and we especially recommend concerted agitation to this end. We urge an increase in public high school facilities in the South, where the Negro-Americans are almost wholly without such provisions. We favor well-equipped trade and technical schools for the training of artisans, and the need of adequate and liberal endowment for a few institutions of higher education must be patent to sincere well-wishers of the race. Courts: We demand upright judges in courts, juries selected without discrimination on account of color and the same measure of punishment and the same efforts at reformation for black as for white offenders. We need orphanages and farm schools for dependent children, juvenile reformatories fox delinquents, and the abolition of the dehumanizing convict-lease system. Public Opinion: We note with alarm the evident retrogression in this land of sound public opinion on the subject of manhood rights, republican government and human brotherhood, arid we pray God that this nation will not degenerate into a mob of boasters and oppressors, but rather will return to the faith of the fathers, that all men were created free and equal, with certain unalienable rights. Suppression and apologetic before insults. Through helplessness we may submit, but the voice of protest of ten million Americans†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ (The Niagara Movement, 1905). By the promotion of these principles, the Niagara Movement made it obvious that discrimination and/or segregation of any kind is unacceptable and would not be tolerated. The document deemed social, political and racial injustice was rationally inappropriate whether it be from the government or even the church. The life of William Du Bois was the complete opposite of his peer and opponent, Booker T. Washington. Du Bois was born to a free black family in Great Barrington, Massachusetts in 1868. Although, both of Du Bois’ parents were predominantly black, he identified himself as a mulatto. The African American population in his hometown was rigidly small; henceforth his education was significantly superior to that of the average black child. Du Bois was encouraged by many of his white teachers to pursue a college education. With help from the community, Du Bois enrolled and later graduated from the Historically Black College known as Fisk University. William Du Bois outstandingly excelled in his academic career. After commencing from Fisk, he would travel to Ohio to do graduate work at Oberlin University. Once arriving back in the United States, Du Bois applied and was accepted to the Ivy- League Harvard University where he later became the first African- American to receive a Ph. D. Du Bois worked with some of the world’s most prominent social scientist and he himself became an international author, sociologist and race leader. Being a stratified sociologist, W. E. B. Du Bois developed several theories regarding race problem. For the Niagara Movement, the key to race problem was simply education. They believed that there was power in knowledge and wisdom. The movement adopted Du Bois’ theory of the â€Å"educated elite. † This theory took place in two phases that adjusted his complete stance on social analysis. â€Å"The first phase encompasses the years of 1897 to1904. During this phase, Du Bois began to define the contours of the problems of the Black population; he also begins to assess the need for an intellectual cadre that would serve as an agent of societal guidance. The second phase (1906-1952) is marked by Du Bois’ thrust to merge his theoretical assumptions on leadership with practical possibilities regarding specific organizations and pro- grams. This phase, which covers the greater part of his life, sees Du Bois formally and partially forsakes his earlier declared commitment to a scientific sociology in order to enter the public arena as a social activist (Dennis 389). † The movement believed in the strength of education as a key to ascendency for the rights of determined humans. With his close friend, colleague as well the co-founder of the Niagara Movement, William Trotter, W. E. B. Du Bois would cultivate the â€Å"talented tenth† idea. While Du Bois felt that in order to succeed, one must be educated, he also felt that the race could only be saved by those who were educated. This notion was heavily adopted and transmitted throughout the Niagara Movement. In the formation of the movement, Du Bois invited only people who he thought would contribute to this talented tenth ideal. â€Å"Those signing represented the vanguard of the Talented Tenth-educators, lawyers, publishers, physicians, ministers, and several businessmen secure enough in their professions and principles to risk Booker T. Washington’s retribution. Du Bois described them as â€Å"educated, determined, and unpurchasable†- fifty odd men he had hoped but doubted he could find who â€Å"had not bowed the knee to Baal (Lewis 316). † Made public by Du Bois in his essay, he described a group of ten black men who would be the pioneers for social change in the African American Community and ultimately save the race from the ranks of white supremacy. These individuals were deemed elite because of their extraordinary success in their education, books, speeches and direct action. The movement felt power in education. â€Å"Du Bois felt entirely the strength of his intellect and desired to exercise it as another might feel and want to exercise the strength of his arm. He fully recognized that he was clearly superior, in the western world’s estimation of equality of mind, in intellectual capacity. He was not among the best black minds of his time; he was among the best minds of his time (Gibson, Du Bois 23). † Emerging as the second African American race leader, Booker T. Washington was a profound orator, author and educator. Many historians believe that Washington was hand-picked by his mentor, Frederick Douglass to be the next spokesman of the black community. After the emancipation of slaves, Washington and his family moved to West Virginia where he would enroll ad graduate from the esteemed Historically Black College, Hampton University. Many years later, as an attempt to expand the number of black educational institutions by the American Missionary Society, Washington with the recommendation of Samuel Armstrong will go on to find the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, AL. Being only 25 when the school started, Washington was eager to educate young blacks on the techniques of agriculture and mechanics. He believed that the key to black success was through land ownership, thrift, accommodation as well as education. After the finding of Tuskegee Institute and Washington’s monumental Atlanta Cotton Address of 1895, W. E. B. Du Bois began criticizing Washington’s journal, the Tuskegee Machine for its accomodationist stance. The members of the Niagara Movement, who were vividly opposed to Washington, began to write their own publications repudiating Washington and his institution. Moreover, they sought him out as a conspirator and traitor. In The Art of the Possible, by Verney, the author states â€Å"publicly, the Tuskegean accepted the southern white notion that slavery had served as a â€Å"civilizing school† for blacks, rescuing them from savagery and ignorance. When addressing a northern audience at the Brooklyn Academy of Music, on 23 February 1903, Washington pithily remarked that â€Å"I confine myself to a statement of cold bare facts when I say that when the Negro went into slavery, he was a pagan; when he ended his period of bondage he had a religion. Moreover, â€Å"when he went into slavery, he was without anything which might properly be called a language; when he came out of slavery he was able to speak the English tongue with force and intellect (Verney 41). † Although the Niagara Movement was not a Pan-African Movement, it shared many of the Pan-African beliefs. The movement became overwhelmingly dismayed with Washington. If the entire black race were to adopt Washington’s views of black accommodation, it would surely land the race back into the shackles of slavery. The second figure head of the Niagara Movement was William Monroe Trotter. Born in the north, his early life was similar to that of Du Bois’. Trotter, who was also supremely hostile to the Tuskegee Conservative, would later launch his own organization known as the National Equal Rights League. Although had many allies of similar beliefs, his organization would never gain any notable recognition of members. Alcoholism and the inability to work well with others would call for the decline in his movement. Trotter would die on his birthday, April 7, 1934 at the age of 62. In 1908, the Springfield Race Riot emerged as one of the most violent and destructive acts of rioting in United States history. In the north during this time, racial tensions were especially high due to the fierce competition in the labor market between blacks and whites. The sole incident started when a black man was accused of breaking into a white man’s home, and after a brawl between the two of them, the white (Charles Ballard) was murdered. A mob of white coal miners gathered to find the suspect. As tensions increased, the mob would rob a Jewish owned gun shop to put an end to the black problem. After a number of lynching’s, and home-burnings over four-thousand blacks fled the city. The mass riot took a total of seven lives and over forty black-owned businesses. On February 12, 1909 a group of stout abolitionists along with W. E. B. Du Bois would find the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP was a formation of black intellectuals as well as concerned whites who sought to ensure the educational, political, social and economic quality of all races. The organization was initially called the National Negro Committee, however a number of its members were white. It was not until the second conference in May of 1909 that the organization would devise the name of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The organization would become incorporated two years later in 1911. The formation of the NAACP would call for the steady decline in the Niagara Movement. Even though movement shared over thirty thriving branches, it would still descend. The Niagara Movement had accomplished a number of local as well as national victories for the civil rights of blacks. The movement mainly declined due to lack of funds, but historians also contend that the decline was caused by the lack of organization and dissenting members. Although the members of the movement were of great prestige, they were not extremely wealthy. Being a movement of the elite, the organization was never able to gain mass attention and membership would decline. Being the national race leader Booker Washington would shun the movement, insuring that it received little to no publicity in the black press. Du Bois would eventually leave the Niagara Movement and become the only black member on the board of the NAACP. As time continued in the mid-twentieth century, blacks continued to demand civil liberties and the protection of their liberties. With the support of whites and blacks alike in the formation of many black justice organizations such as the Southern Leadership Conference, the NAACP and the Montgomery Civil Rights Movement, schools would be desegregated, blacks were given the right to vote and African Americans became citizens. The passage if the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth amendments as well as the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965 gave blacks equal protection of the laws.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Medical Informatics in the Management of Diabetes Essay Example

Medical Informatics in the Management of Diabetes Essay Example Medical Informatics in the Management of Diabetes Paper Medical Informatics in the Management of Diabetes Paper Studies showed that the cost for quality health care increases but it is becoming inefficient when it comes to delivering service. One of the reasons for this is the cost of recordkeeping, a major component in health care. The Health Information Technology (HIT) was introduced for accurate processing of reports and to keep track of the programs and needs of the health care consumers. It will tackle problems posed by cost, access and quality. It refers to computer hardware and software that stores, retrieves and shares health care information for use by health care providers and consumers in decision making. HIT has many benefits in store for the health care system. Health care consumers will be assured that they can get the best medical goods and services from health care systems. They can cut costs while at the same time receiving the best health care there is. Diseases will also be prevented in their early stages. Storing patient medical records electronically allows for improved accuracy and privacy of records. It is easier to track individual records when needed and the health care providers can input or change data easier and faster. Besides being cost effective, storing records electronically helps doctors in making quicker and better informed decisions. The patients will also be assured that their medical records and in good hands. But this form of keeping records may be inefficient at times. A provider might input data on the wrong record. Electronic medical records are not protected, and this leads to a more serious problem. The biggest problem that seems to arise from this is on privacy. With a click of the mouse, it is easier to look into someone’s personal health information and it can be passed around without the patient knowing it. This would make many patients vulnerable especially when their records are used for purposes other than medical. REFERENCE Sennet, Cary and Daniel Wolfson. (2006). Taming Health Care Inefficiency. Diabetes is a serious medical condition characterized by the inability of the body to regulate glucose levels in the blood. In Type 1, which is usually childhood onset, the pancreas does not produce insulin, a hormone that is necessary for cells to absorb glucose and utilize it for metabolism. In the more common and usually adult onset Type 2, the body produces insulin but at insufficient levels or cells in the body have a reduced sensitivity to the hormone, hence unable to absorb insulin (American Diabetes Association, 2008). The high glucose levels or hyperglycemia in diabetics is the primary cause for life threatening complications which include heart disease, kidney failure, nerve damage, damage to blood vessels, necrosis in the extremities resulting in amputation, stroke, ketoacidosis leading to diabetic coma and prolonged emptying of gastric contents (American Diabetes Association, 2008). Diabetes also significantly increases the risks to developing glaucoma, cataracts and if unmanaged, eventually leads to blindness. The treatment for diabetes is a complex process which involves resolving the high blood glucose levels, preventing minor complications from becoming full blown, managing symptoms and major complications as well as instituting appropriate lifestyle changes. Medications and insulin shots, regular retinopathy and urine ketone tests, continuous blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise and proper foot care are some of the treatment methods (Schaffer, 2008). Because there is currently no cure for the disease and treatment is both rigorous and long term, diabetics need to learn self-monitoring skills for ketones and blood glucose levels, self-administration of insulin and medications, how to buy and store diabetes supplies as well as weight and nutrition management in order to avert emergency conditions (Schaffer, 2008). When serious complications arise, these are usually treated through intensive medications, surgery and kidney transplants in the event of irreversible kidney damage. Current Equipment Used by Diabetics There are classes of equipment that are currently being used by diabetics and their caregivers in treating the disease. Bio signals, biomedical devices, insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring devices, insulin pens and pumps, retinopathy screening machines, blood glucose monitors, lancets and lancing devices are such equipment where most can be used in the home setting and limit the need for daily visits to the health care facility while providing effective treatment. Insulin pumps, such as the MiniMed Paradigm ® 722, are devices consisting of a computer, a pump with insulin supply and a catheter inserted into the abdominal fat of a diabetic (Hurd, 2007). They are meant to replace individual insulin shots and allow greater control over insulin dosage to fit one’s activity, food intake and glucose levels. Dosage information is entered into the computer which pumps the exact amount through the catheter. Insulin pens, like the HumaPen ® LUXURAâ„ ¢ HD, are used to self-administer insulin and have pre-filled cartridges of up to 300 units, a needle at one end, a plunger at the other and look like pen markers (Douglass, 2008). Indicators in the pen provide information as to the range of doses that can be administered, amount of insulin left, the date/time/dosages of insulin taken recently or how to fix wrong dosage instructions. The MiniMed Paradigm ® REAL-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System is a small device composed of glucose sensors, a transmitter, an alarm and a small computer that are continually attached to the abdomen (Minimed. com, 2008). The sensors transmit a blood glucose measurement per minute that transmitted and displayed on the computer screen as well as mean measurements per 5 minutes, glucose level trends and their direction. Abnormal glucose levels trigger the alarm. Blood glucose monitors may either come as blood glucose meters such as PocketChem EZ or chemical test strips which are visually compared to a color chart to obtain a reading. Glucose meters require a test strip and a lancet. A drop of blood is smeared on the strip to be fed into the meter which supplies a measurement (Douglass, 2008). PocketChem EZ can store more than 200 downloadable test results with time and dates indicated. A lancet is a metal with a needle like end used to prick the finger or alternative sites in the body to obtain minute amounts of blood for testing and are held in lancing devices to facilitate usage. An example is the Vitalcare Lancet Device which looks like a pen and uses Vitalcare lancets or other standard lancets (Douglass, 2008). The sterile lancet is placed in a holder inside the pen and slight pressure directed at the trigger will release it. A digital retinal camera such as the Canon CF-1 is used for retinopathy or diabetic eye disorder screening. After eye drops are applied to enlarge the patient’s pupils, high resolution diagnostic images of the posterior portion of the eyes are obtained for analysis (Canon. com, 2008). The CF-1 comes with a Retinal Imaging Control Software and conforms to the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine interface allowing images to be integrated into other image management systems as well as allows the device to connect to various network configurations (Canon. com, 2008). Biosignals are any measurable electrical and non-electrical signals in the human body while biomedical devices entail the use of living organisms and their processes in the treatment of disease (Singh, 2006). An application with regards to diabetes is the technique of attaching a pouch which contains transplanted insulin-producing cells into large veins where they can proliferate and yield much needed insulin (Kanaujia, 2007). Modern Technologies Used in the Treatment of Diabetes With the wealth of data that a diabetic has to contend with in dealing with his/her condition, organizational tools are necessary in order to generate accurate, useful and timely information for a more efficient and effective self-management of the disease in coordination with her health care team. For instance, the diabetic has to acquire information regarding the anticipated effects of foods she plans to eat or activities she wants to engage in on her glucose levels. The diabetic then has to calculate the dosage of insulin that she should receive and when. She may have other medications that have their own dosage instructions. She also has regular schedules for urine tests and retinal screening. She has to keep tabs of her supply of insulin, lancets and test strips. She has to regularly monitor her glucose levels, vitals signs and her weight. She has to adhere to physician recommended foot care and other treatments. Advances in the field of medical informatics has allowed for the integrated use of information, communication and medical technologies in managing patient data and has enhanced many other facets of health care. However, medical informatics does not only benefit the health care team but also individual patients such as diabetics. The diffusion of technology allowed systems and devices to be adapted and manufactured for patient use. A set of managerial tools that collectively work to enable a much simpler but more precise diabetes self-management is the Diabetes Pilotâ„ ¢. It is a software designed and tested by diabetics to replace the conventional method of manually writing down data onto paper and has three versions – the Diabetes Pilot Desktop, the Diabetes Pilot for Palm Handhelds and the Diabetes Pilot for Pocket PC (diabetespilot. com, 2007). The Diabetes Pilotâ„ ¢ enables patients to log various data such as their glucose level readings, compliance with their insulin and other drug regimens, meals taken per day, fitness workouts accomplished, blood pressure measurements, results of routine tests as well as other pertinent information into reports (diabetespilot. com, 2007). The Medication Totals report, Exercise Totals report and the Blood Pressure List report are examples of listings of different data categories. The software also provides a database containing information on the nutritive values of thousands of foods and through the Meal Listing and Daily Food Summary reports, aids the diabetic in determining the amount of carbohydrates, calories, fats, proteins, fiber, sodium, cholesterol, vitamins and other minerals they obtained from individual meals or from all meals taken during the day (diabetespilot. com, 2007). This provides for an effective way of establishing and maintaining a diet suitable for the diabetic. Like the MiniMed Paradigm ® REAL-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System, the Diabetes Pilotâ„ ¢ also features tabular or graphical representations of blood glucose level pattern in order for the diabetic to easily perceive the direction of such patterns and adjust her insulin dosages or medications accordingly. Mean measurements by hour, by day or by month can also be calculated as well as the highest and lowest readings taken. Options regarding what system the diabetic wishes to use to categorize data are also available and aimed at establishing significant trends in self care over a period of time. Because the Diabetes Pilotâ„ ¢ is not meant to replace physician care entirely with self-care, all records made by the diabetic can be communicated to her health care team for evaluation and further recommendations using a variety of methods. A similar product but only applicable to Palm PDA is the Universal Tracking System (UTS) Diabetes Palm PDA software. Among its features, data can be transformed into MS Excel format and has an E-mail Report application so that the patient can send the file to her physician (Universal Tracking System, 2007). Automatic calculation of insulin dosage based on glucose measurement is also accomplished. Aside from allowing data entry, the UTS can turn out a summary of the reports and interactive graphical representation of data which will enhance patient and physician decision making with regards to dosage adjustments. Color coding also effectively indicates if the glucose level is normal, high or low and in mg/dL or mmol/L units (Universal Tracking System, 2007). A similar database of food but also includes medications and insulin types is further provided. Medical Informatics’ Areas of Interest in the Treatment of Diabetes The largely fragmented health care system allows for many weaknesses with regards to caring for diabetic patients in that efforts are largely centered on acute conditions and serious complications rather than on chronic disease management. This poses significant challenges even for those in the area of medical informatics. In response, successful efforts have been made to develop a diabetes registry population management application aimed at integrating the chronic disease registry (an informatics system) into the clinical workflow (Zai et. al. , 2008). In terms of decision support, efforts have also been made in developing a model system for classifying knowledge in the area of insulin regimen specifications and dose adjustment in consideration of such factors as diabetes type, patient age, current treatment, glucose profile, physical activity, food intake and desirable blood glucose control Gogou et. al. , 2001). When a physician makes a decision, he relies on practice, intuition and knowledge. However, a knowledge classification system will enhance and standardize decision-making. With available organizational tool devices for diabetic patients, the need to integrate patient derived data into her medical records in the hospital’s EMR system is imminent. One such project is the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel). Patients are equipped with a specialized computer called the Home Telemedicine Unit (HTU) with the following: 1. a video camera and microphone for videoconferencing with physicians, 2. a home glucose monitoring device which directly uploads readings, 3. accessibility of the patients’ self-derived medical data, and 4. patient access to educational websites (Starren, et. al. , 2006). With regards to diagnosing diabetic retinopathy via digital retinal cameras, the accuracy of human visual analysis can be increased with the aid of computers. The presence of fluids in the macular region of the eye is a major indicator of retinopathy and its detection is a significant diagnostic activity wherein computers may extend assistance (Walter, Klein, Massin and Erginay, 2002). An algorithm for exudate detection is currently in use which employs the characteristic high grey level variation and contours of exudates with the optic disc as point of reference (Walter, Klein, Massin and Erginay, 2002). Finally, biosignaling is also an important concern of medical informatics. In a recently developed application known as the Emer-Loc, emergency medical situations for diabetic patients may be speedily responded to from the use of location-based biosignaling (Maglogiannis and Hadjiefthymiades, 2007). The system employs sensors affixed to the patients body, a micro-computing unit which processes sensor readings and a central monitoring unit to coordinate data flow (Maglogiannis and Hadjiefthymiades, 2007). Global positioning system (GPS) is used to locate the patient if her signals correspond to an emergency condition. List of References American Diabetes Association (2008). Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from diabetes. org/type-1-diabetes/treatment-conditions. jsp. BD diabetes. com (2008). Insulin Pens. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from bddiabetes. com/US/main. aspx? cat=1id=254. Childrenwithdiabetes. com (2005). Auto-Lancet Adjustable. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from childrenwithdiabetes. com/d_06_2a7. htm. Diabetespilot. com (2008). Diabetes Pilot: Information Management for People with Diabetes. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from diabetespilot. com/index. php? ref=5gclid=CPiG5b2TwpYCFQeO1Qodm iMAzg. Douglass, K. (2008). New Products. Diabetes Forecast 2008 Resource Guide. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from diabetes. org/uedocuments/df-rg-new-products- 0108. pdf. Gogou, G. , Maglaveras, N. , Ambrosiadou, B. V. , Goulis, D. and Pappas, C. (2001). â€Å"A Neural Approach in Diabetes Management by Insulin Administration†. Journal of Medical Systems 2(25): 119-131. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from http://portal. acm. org/citation. cfm? id=609076. Hurd, R. (2007). Insulin Pump. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from nlm. nih. gov/ /ency/imagepages/18035. htm. Kanaujia, M. (2007). New Device to Treat Diabetes and Fulminant Liver Failure. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from medgear. org/page/4/. Maglogiannis, I. and Hadjiefthymiades, S. (2007). EmerLoc: Location-Based Services for Emergency Medical Incidents. International Journal of Medical Informatics 76(10): 747-759. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from find-health-articles. com/rec_pub_16949860-emerloc-location-based-services-emergency-medical-incidents. htm. Minimed. com (2008). MiniMed Paradigm Real-Time System. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from minimed. com/products/insulinpumps/components/minilink. html. Schaffer, A. (2008). New York Times Health Guide: Diabetes. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from http://health. nytimes. com/health/guides/disease/diabetes/overview. html. Singh, V. (2006). Introduction to Biosignals. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from ee. unimelb. edu. au/ISSNIP/multimedia/events/workshop22_09_06_final. p df. Starren, J. , Hilliman, C. , Weinstock, R. S. , Shea, S. and IDEATel Consortium (2006). â€Å"Theater Style Demonstration: The Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) Project†. American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium Proceedings 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from pubmedcentral. nih. gov/articlerender. fcgi? artid=1839417. Universal Tracking System (2007). UTS Diabetes Palm PDA Software. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from utracksys. com/plugins/diabetes/? ref=gaw_soft. Walter, T. , Klein, J. , Massin, P. and Erginay, A. (2002). â€Å"A Contribution of Image Processing to the Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy†. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 10(21): 1236- 1243. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from http://cat. inist. fr/? aModele=afficheNcpsidt=14504609. Zai, A. H. , Grant, R. W. , Estey, G. , Lester, W. T. , Andrews, C. T. , Yee, R. et. al. (2008). â€Å"Lessons From Implementing a Combined Workflow-Informatics System for Diabetes Management†. JAMIA 15: 524-533. Retrieved 27 October 2008 from jamia. org/cgi/content/short/15/4/524.

Friday, February 21, 2020

The Role of Thusong Community Centre in advancing development to Essay

The Role of Thusong Community Centre in advancing development to communities - Essay Example ratic government in 1994. Black and rural area residents did not have the opportunity of the urban people to receive quality government services. Principal challenge of new democratic government is to reduce the gap created by the previous government in receiving services irrespective of location of regions, status and race of people. In 1999 government introduced Multipurpose-Purpose Community Centers (MPCC) to reduce the gaps. Today, those community centers; are called Thusong Service Centers (TSC). ... These centres are established as communication development hubs based on Batho Pele values and principles, which place people first. TSC’s primary focus was on rural and underserviced communities to address their historical, social and economic factors thru access to information and citizen participation. It also included these communities’ socio-economic problems such as poverty, high unemployment, low standards of living (people living below the poverty line), poor access to basic services, remote settlement patterns, lack of access to technology and information, poor health services, insufficient education and skills and poor infrastructure (GCIS, 2001; 5). Since its introduction, TSC has undergone several changes to improve national coordination at the local level. In this regards TSC program created two phases’ activities. The phases are called first generation and second generation. According to a document released by the GCIS (2006: 7), the first generatio n phase is developed to establish one TSC in each district by December 2004. In fact, by December 2004, sixty-five centres were established that provides services to more than 700 areas not served previously. As of September 2009, countrywide 139 TSCs are established. The further roll-out of TSCs in each local municipality is a target set for 2014. In 2006, Cabinet approved the second generation Thusong Service Centres Business Plan. It describes different participants roles and responsibilities, provides guidelines on the sustainability of existing TSC, and focuses on the role of future centers. Second-generation TSC Program entails government’s commitment to build a responsive state where citizens and the